The Low Voltage Directive (LVD)

The Low Voltage Directive (LVD)

Directive 2014/35 / EU of the European Parliament and of the Council – dated 26 February 2014 and implemented in Italy by Legislative Decree 86 of 19 May 2016 – harmonises the Member States in relation to electrical equipment intended for use within specific voltage limits. The Directive aims to ensure that the electrical equipment involved have the appropriate protection against electrical hazards of various kinds. Referring to technical standards IEC / EN ISO – under which producers of electrical products must follow - the Directive explicitly foreseen the risks to health and safety, defining the parameters for which the devices are secure with respect to its intended use.

This Directive is part of the legislative framework for the free movement and marketing of products in the European community. Its ultimate aim is to avoid the risks related to a product or to a phenomenon, thus defending the common interest of European citizens and companies.

The English name for this directive: Low Voltage Directive;

Its abbreviation is: LVD;

Its code is: 2014/35/I;

Previous directives on this subject, Today they are no longer in force: 2006/95/EC, 73/23/CEE.

E 'useful to know the references of the directives because they often are in the products or components documentation, but also in the European laws and regulations if they have not recently been updated.

Field of application: Directive 2014/35 / EU (LVD) It regards the electrical material in alternating current and in direct current with a nominal voltage respectively between 50 and 1000 And between V 75 and 1500 V.

Essential requirements: affected products from the scope of the Directive, to be put on the European market, They must comply with the essential requirements described in Annex 1 of the directive. In general the essential requirements of the Directive concerning a high level of health protection and safety of persons, of domestic animals and goods, while ensuring the functioning of the internal market.

Main contents of the Directive

  • preconditions
  • Field of application
  • Definitions
  • Essential requirements
  • Obligations of the manufacturer
  • Obligations of the other economic operators
  • Free movement
  • Presumption of conformity and harmonized standards
  • Conformity assessment
  • notified bodies
  • CE Marking

Analysis circuitspreconditions

They are intended as "Background" the reasons that led to the writing of that directive.

Field of application

The scope defines the categories of products or phenomena covered by Directive. Often a general criterion is expressed accompanied by explicit lists of products / phenomena that are subject to the Directive and product / phenomena that are excluded from the Directive in order to clarify the specific situations.

Definitions

In the section "Definitions" means including all those specific explanations of key terms in the Directive, useful to fully understand the scope.

Essential requirements

The essential requirements are the requirements which the product must meet in order to be placed on the market. Often the essential requirements are placed in Annex I to Directive.

Obligations of the manufacturer

The manufacturer (or his authorized representative in the European Community) is the main person responsible for placing a product on the market. This chapter describes the requirements and procedures that they must follow, referring to the Annexes to Directive for explanations and more detailed regulations.

Obligations of the other economic operators

Distributors and retailers are also responsible and liable if they trade items that do not comply with European directives. They must verify that the manufacturer did run the electrical safety testing, that the product is equipped with the EU declaration of conformity and that it bears the CE mark.

Any importer must ensure that the procedures for the verification of conformity of the product have been performed, must verify the presence of the CE marking and make sure that the technical documentation of the product is available to the competent national authorities.

Free movement

Member States must presume that products bearing the CE marking comply with all the provisions of the applicable directives providing for the affixing. They can not therefore be prohibited, restrict or prevent the placing on the market and putting into service in their territory of products bearing the CE marking, unless the provisions relating to CE marking have not been applied improperly.

Presumption of conformity and harmonized standards

At the directives of our interest it is associated with a list of harmonized standards that is published in the European Official Journal. The harmonized standards greatly facilitate the verification of compliance of a product with the requirements of Directive. In these standards it is described in detail how the tests or other assessment kinds necessary for the electrical safety checks must be carried out.

If a product is available the harmonized standards to cover all the requirements of the Directive - if these standards are applied comprehensively and the product passes all tests provided by the same rules – then it can be assumed that the product complies with the requirements of that Directive. In the absence of harmonized standards adequate to the product path it is more complicated and expensive.

Equipping a suitable laboratory to perform the tests required by the Harmonized Standards thing is rather onerous. For this reason, manufacturers are often rely on external test laboratories for the electrical safety testing.

notified bodies

In Europe it is the body that can make an assessment of compliance by acting as a third party or whether the one made by the manufacturer and its trusted laboratories is correct. In most cases, however, the use of a notified body is not provided or not required.

CE Marking

The products comply with all the provisions of the applicable directives providing for the CE marking must convey it. Such marking is, in particular, an indication that the products comply with the essential requirements of all applicable directives and that they were subjected to a conformity assessment procedure provided for by the Directives. Member States are also required to take the necessary measures to protect the CE marking.

Sicom Testing with its extensive experience offers a wide range of services for the electrical safety testing.

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39 commenti su “La Direttiva Bassa Tensione (LVD)”

  1. la LVD si applica ai veicoli elettrici (tipo M e N, ossia le normali automobili) con tensioni di lavoro rientranti nel range di applicabilità?

    La LVD si applica ai componenti (drums, motori, OBC, cavi, etc.) che sono destinati ad essere installati su veicoli elettrici (tipo M e N) e che operano nel range di tensione prevista dalla direttiva?

    • good morning,
      Ai veicoli di tipo M e N, ai sistemi, ai componenti e alle entità tecniche indipendenti nonché alle parti e agli accessori progettati e costruiti per tali veicoli e i loro rimorchi si applica il REGOLAMENTO (EU) 2018/858.
      Kind regards
      Sicom Test

      • good morning,

        Grazie per il chiarimento.

        Il REGOLAMENTO (EU) 2018/858 si applica anche ai ricambi?
        Oppure per questi bisogna ricorrere alla certificazione CE nel caso essi operino nel range di tensione prevista dalla LVD?

        Regards

        • good morning,
          Si il regolamento si applica anche alle “set off” di un veicolo.
          Nel regolamento le parti vengono definite comei prodotti usati per l’assemblaggio, la riparazione e la manutenzione di un veicolo, nonché i pezzi di ricambio;”
          Kind regards
          Sicom Test

  2. good morning,
    heating pad 12 Vol c.c. 18 Watts to fit in PES duffel bag, plus primary power supply 230 V ac. The entire product falls under LVD and EMC? It requires a single CE marking that also takes into account the fabric bag or the markings of the other two components are sufficient?
    Thank you

    • good morning,
      The directives must be applied to the final product, So if the combination bag + heating pad + power supply is sold on the market, it is the latter that must comply with the directives. LVD applies in this specific case., EMC, RoHS and Ecodesign (on power supply A 230 Vac).
      Kind regards
      Sicom Test

  3. good morning
    A three-phase diode module used inside other devices – e.g. battery charger – is subject to which rule or directive ?
    Thank you

    • good morning,
      The components inside the luminaires are not directly subject to specific standards but are analyzed as part of the product; In the case of a battery charger, the safety standard for battery chargers applies, consequently the internal circuits, and its components, must comply with the requirements of this standard.
      Kind regards
      Sicom Test

  4. An underwater drone (ROV) that goes with a cable to the surface control, i.e. there is no radio signal, and is powered by an internal battery from 18 DC volts, needs CE marking? The battery uses an external charger from 220 V AC when extracted from water.
    Thanks so much

    • good morning,
      To your product should be applied:
      -The Machinery Directive
      -The Electromagnetic Compatibility Directive
      -The Low Voltage Directive (in case the battery charger is part of the product)
      The application of these directives provides for the CE marking
      Kind regards
      Sicom Test

    • good morning,
      The Directives apply to this product:
      -2001/95/EC on general product safety
      -2014/30/EU on electromagnetic compatibility
      -2011/65/EU RoHs
      Kind regards
      Sicom Test

  5. good morning,
    a device consisting of two fans powered at 12Vdc by a solar panel capable of delivering voltages from 18 Vcc requires CE marking? If you, I assume only the general safety regulations are applicable… correct?
    Moreover, if the components are in turn CE marked it is sufficient guarantee to declare the device compliant?

    Thank you

    Anonymous

    • good morning,
      The general product safety and electromagnetic compatibility directives must be applied to the product in question..
      Compliance with the applicable directives must be verified on the finished product, so that this can be marketed on the European market.
      The product must be tested according to suitable harmonized standards (which are not necessarily the same as those applicable to individual components), to demonstrate compliance with the requirements of the applicable Directives.
      The product documentation and the reports of the tests carried out must be collected in a technical file.
      The declaration of conformity of the product must be prepared and signed by the manufacturer.
      Sicom Testing can carry out the tests for you and prepare the technical file and the declaration of conformity.
      Kind regards
      Sicom Test

  6. good morning. For an all-electric oven for cooking food for non-domestic use, as it is provided only to professionals in the food sector, the LVD directive is applicable? Thank you

    • good morning,
      Yes an electric oven, powered by the power grid, falls under the LVD directive even if the intended use is professional.
      Kind regards
      Sicom Test

    • good morning,
      The 2014/30 / EU directives on electromagnetic compatibility apply to this product, and 2001/95 / EC on general product safety.
      Kind regards
      Sicom Test

    • good morning,
      for this type of products it is not necessary to apply the LVD directive, as the Machinery Directive 2006/42 / EC already covers the safety aspects of the products.
      Sincerely
      Sicom Testing

  7. good morning, could you tell me which regulations apply to a control transformer with multivoltage inputs of 220 V – 240 V – 380 V – 400 V – 440 V and an output of 24 V – for a frequency of 50/60 Hz. With power of 50 V ampere.

  8. good morning,
    A lead acid battery sealed in a casing (which can be used for portable power supply or for emergency starting of a vehicle), it requires LVD even if it emits 12 V, simply because the external charger that charges the battery is 230 V and needs LVD? this makes the whole product need LVD?
    Thank you

    • Good morning,
      If battery and charger are placed on the market as a single product this falls the LVD must be applied to all its components.
      Kind regards
      Sicom Test

  9. Good morning,
    The product does not fall under the low voltage directive as its rated output voltage is higher than the application limits of the directive (1000 volts in alternating current – 1500 volts in direct current).
    Kind regards
    Sicom Test

  10. A device consisting of some accelerometers, tensometers which are powered by external direct voltage (max. 10 V DC) requires the CE mark? The device has no internal batteries.

    • good morning,
      Yes, a device of this type requires the CE mark as it falls under the electromagnetic compatibility directive (EMC).
      Kind regards
      Sicom Test

    • good morning,
      No, it is not subject to the low voltage directive, as according to the annex 2 of the same are excluded from the directive “Specialized electrical equipment, for use on ships, airplanes or railways, comply with the security provisions drawn up by international organizations in which the Member States participate”. However, it must comply with the directive for equipment used on boats.
      Kind regards
      Sicom Test

    • good morning,
      The low voltage directive does not apply to MV / LV transformers, but they are subject to other regulations that must be respected, among these the 2009/125 / EC directive on eco-design, which requires the CE mark to be affixed to products.
      Kind regards
      Sicom Test

  11. Good afternoon,
    I wanted to ask you, an electronic device manufactured in China and sold in Europe with the following characteristics (battery 150 mAh, nominal power 5 W, battery voltage 3.7V, input voltage DC 5V / 1A) complies with the EMC directive (with relative CE marking), RoSH and WEEE right?
    Regarding the LVD directive, the object has a power lower than 75 V in DC and therefore not within the same is correct?
    Being inferior, must comply with other directives ? Thank you

    • good morning,
      In addition to the directives you mentioned, you need to check that the product is safe, not falling under LVD the directive applies to the product “General product safety”.
      Moreover, if the product contains radio modules, LVD standards apply even if the supply voltage is less than 75V.
      Kind regards
      Sicom Test

  12. Salve , for a beauty care product for aspiration of blackheads , con input voltage 5V – battery voltage 3.7V e input power 0.8W , it needs CE certifications ? , thanks

    • good morning,
      Yup, the product needs CE certification, in particular, by acting directly on the human body, the directive on medical devices is applicable.
      Greetings Sicom Test

    • good morning.
      Battery powered electronic devices fall under the electromagnetic compatibility directive and are therefore subject to the CE mark.
      Any battery charger attached to the device, as well as equipment with integrated power supply, that fall within the voltage range of the directive, fall within the scope of the Low Voltage Directive.
      Greetings from Sicom Testing

  13. I would like to know that the low voltage directive should respect a home exercise bike that does not use a power supply but uses the electric current generated by the same pedaling by generator

    • If the tensions generated inside the exercise bike are less than 50 volts the low voltage directive does not apply. In the absence of other safety directives applicable to this product, the general product safety directive must apply (2001/95/THIS).

      Greetings from Sicom Testing

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