Electromagnetic compatibility is an important topic of engineering and societies today and is set to become increasingly important with the progress of computer technology and electronics.
It is a relatively new concept and its birth is linked to large-scale deployment of electronic devices and their use in different types of environments.
What is EMC?
It is a discipline that ensures that electronic devices work properly in a given environment and proximity of other devices.
Before the mass distribution of electronic equipment, the receivers and radio transmitters were to operate in environments where the potential for interference came only from natural sources such as lightning, and almost nothing was done to minimize their susceptibility to external disturbances or to limit emissions.
When they began to appear more and more artificial interference sources, It focused on aspects of electromagnetic compatibility, to investigate and study the equipment malfunctions that often contained.
This discipline acquired special importance during the Second World War, when the military ships were equipped with complex electronic equipment and powerful, such as communication systems, radar and missiles, placed close to each other.
The cases of malfunctioning equipment, sensitive to electromagnetic interference, They intensified and scientists applied to the analysis and solution of these problems.
The discovery of the causes of these phenomena led to indicate warnings and practices to eliminate the problems.
I also utilized the military electromagnetic disturbances to block communications or alter the operation of equipment and weapons of their enemies.
Based on these experiences, in almost all industrialized countries, regulations have been created adapted to limit any problems from Cusati, or, equipment in the area.
In the United States the electromagnetic compatibility tests They are so important that they are regulated by federal law, on the contrary of the aspects related to security that are not.
L’FCC (Federal Communication Commission) It is the entity that manages the rules and regulations concerning the electromagnetic emissions of the devices sold on US soil.
In Europe, with the birth of the European Union, legislation has been unified by starting up Community rules governing bilateral trade of goods.
The European Community regulates this matter through Directive 2014/30 / EU EMC.
The EMC Directive 2014/30 / EU
The purpose of the rule is to ensure that the environment is acceptable from the electromagnetic point of view and that the equipment is functioning properly.
To ensure this, it was determined that the equipment, placed on the Community, to meet EMC requirements shared by the member states.
Compliance with the provisions of this Directive is therefore a requirement that electrical and electronic equipment must have in order to be freely marketed in the European market.
Let's see in detail what it means Directive:
The article 1 It defines the object, the target, which it is precisely to ensure that equipment placed on the market conforms to an adequate level of electromagnetic compatibility.
What are the equipment to which the standard??
The directive applies to any apparatus or fixed installation, indicated in the articles 2 and 3:
- Every finished device, O combination of finished devices, made available to the market as single functional unit, intended for the final user and capable of generating electromagnetic disturbance, or whose operation can be affected by such disturbances;
- A particular combination of several types of apparatus and possibly other devices, which are assembled, installed and intended to be used permanently at a predefined location.
To conform, the equipment must comply with the essential requirements set by the Directive in its Annex I, in particular, they must be designed and manufactured in such a way that:
- Electromagnetic disturbances product does not exceed the level above which radio and telecommunications equipment or other equipment can not operate normally;
- Present a predictable level of immunity to electromagnetic disturbances on the basis of the use for which they are intended and which allows normal operation without unacceptable deterioration.
Each piece of equipment that integrates active electronic parts capable of causing disorders or who may suffer interference is subject to verification of electromagnetic compatibility.
Even those products that traditionally did not include electrical components, but with advances in technology are developing and becoming more complex, be checked.
Just think of how many devices in our home and work life today are driven by motors, electronic systems or remote controls.
All products falling under the above categories are subject to EMC certification
Anyhow, a test EMC on the product guarantees the functionality to adjust over time and projects it into a future more and more technologically advanced.