The rule IN 60529 It describes a system for the classification of the degree of protection provided by enclosures for electrical and electronic equipment.
The degree of protection is indicated by the code IP (Ingress Protection) which expresses the level of protection provided by enclosures for electrical equipment against access to dangerous parts internal to the casing and against the penetration of solid foreign bodies and water.
EN 60529 It is emitted from CENELEC (European Committee for Electrotechnical Standardization) which it is the European Committee for Electrotechnical Standardization, based on the international standard IEC 60529. This in turn is prepared and issued by the IEC (International Electrotechnical Commission).
Field of application: the rule is applicable to enclosures of electrical and electronic equipment with a rated voltage not exceeding 72,5 kV.
The degrees of IP protection are generally consist of two digits characteristics:
- the first digit indicates that the enclosure provides the protection of persons against access to hazardous parts, by preventing or limiting the ingress into an enclosure of a body part or a tool contested by a person and that the casing of the apparatus provides the protection against penetration of solid foreign bodies;
- the second digit indicates that the casing of the apparatus provides the protection against harmful effects of liquid input.
The IP is indicated by the two-digit characteristics, plus optionally the additional letter to indicate the degree of protection for people against access to the live parts and the additional letter to provide additional information specific to the product.
In the absence of information on one of the two figures, This may be replaced by an X. The additional letter and supplementary letter are optional and thus can be omitted without being replaced.
IP tests are part of the electrical safety verification of a product, in fact they have been designed primarily for the protection of electrical components.
FIRST NUMBER OF IP CODE
The first digit of the IP code identifies the degree of protection against ingress of solid foreign bodies and the protection of persons against contact with hazardous parts.
- IP0X No protection
- IP1X protection against solid objects up to 50 mm and protection against access with the back of the hand
- IP2X protection against solid objects up to 12 mm and protection against access with a finger
- IP3X protection against solid objects up to 2.5 mm and protection against access with a tool
- IP4X protection against solid objects up to 1 mm and protection against access with a wire
- IP5X protection against dust and protection against access with a wire
- IP6X complete protection against dust and protection against access with a wire
The IP1X protection is permitted for equipment to be protected by an enclosure or installed in places locked and accessible only to trained personnel. The IP2X and IP3X protections are best suited for components installed in locations accessible to persons not trained in ordinary environments. The IP4X protection is used when it is expected the presence of wires, chippings, filings or other. The IP5X protection is suitable in dusty environments occasionally while the IP6X protection is indicated for permanently dusty environments.
SECOND NUMBER OF IP CODE
The second digit of the IP code the protection against liquid penetration:
- IPX0 No protection
- IPX1 Protection against falling drops of water in a vertical
- IPX2 protection against falling drops of water with maximum inclination of 15 °
- IPX3 Rain protection
- IPX4 protection from the direct water spray
- IPX5 protection against direct water jets
- IPX6 protection from waves
- IPX7 protection from temporary immersion in water (between 15 cm e 1 m depth for a maximum of 30 minutes)
- IPX8 protection from permanent immersion in water (until 3 m depth continues for a maximum of one hour)
- IPX9 by permanent protection diving in water and by water jets at high pressure and high temperature (until 3 m depth continues for a maximum of one hour)
For devices to be installed outside, or in environments with possible presence of water, it usually requires a level of protection at least equal to IPX4.
The additional letter is used when the protection of persons against contact with hazardous parts is higher than that of the entry of solid bodies expressed by the first characteristic numeral.
- A Protected against access with the back of the hand
- B Protected against access with a finger
- C Protected against access with a tool
- D Protected against access with a wire
The additional letter is used to provide more specific information, relating to the material.
- H high-voltage equipment
- M Tested against damaging effects due to entry of water with equipment in motion
- S Tested against damaging effects due to entry of water with equipment not running
- V Suitable for use in the specified atmospheric conditions
Example of representation:
IP 6 6 C H
IP: Index letters (Degree of Protection)
6: First characteristic numeral (gives 0 a 6 or letter X)
6: Second characteristic numeral (gives 0 a 9 or letter X)
C: additional letter
H: additional letter
Generally, for products used outdoors it is appropriate to provide products with a protection that goes dall'IP54 all'IP67.
The IP code is a valid indicator of the protection provided by the equipment and provides more detailed information than the commercial descriptions. Relying on an experienced laboratory as Sicom Testing for evaluation of the degree of IP protection and for electrical safety testing It allows manufacturers to verify that their equipment is safe ingress of solids and liquids prior to its placing on the market, possibly allowing to intervene on the product adopting the most appropriate solutions.
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