The era of telecommunications has made great strides and the technological evolution of mobile network has led to the emergence of new devices and new services. The 3G opened the doors to the Internet and new multimedia services available to cellular mobile network; the 4G has just begun to spread on our smartphones and tablets but there is already talk of next generation, the 5G, the technology that will allow us to develop digital services that were unthinkable until now. There are future developments, near and far, which for some time will support 2 g and 3 g generations that preceded. But mobile telecommunication generations changed over the years? What will the "revolution" 5 g?
From 1 to 4 g: past and present of mobile telecommunication
Mobile communication has evolved a great deal in a few decades, in which come through the various generations of devices and networks compatible with new standards of telecommunication. First generation systems, appeared in “far away” Anni ' 80 under the symbol 1 g, transmitted in analogue mode and were able to handle only voice traffic. The quality of communication offered by first generation cell phones, decidedly bulky equipment, had obvious limitations related to the type of signal, as the poor audio quality and frequent interruptions.
In order to improve the transmission quality, the system capacity and coverage, the second generation of mobile networks 2 g marked a break with previous technology, focusing the digital shift introduced by GSM standard (Global System for Mobile communications).
Born in Europe in the early ' 90, to date, the GSM, implemented by its subsequent evolution, stands as the standard mobile phone with the largest number of users worldwide.
The use of digital technology has sanctioned the birth of the first data transmission services, in the form of text messages (SMS – Short Message Service), multimedia messages (MMS – Multimedia Message Service) and WAP (Wireless Application Protocol), the standard that has allowed access to specific Internet content to mobile. All this was made possible by an evolution of the GSM standard, the generation 2.5 G, a cross between the second (GSM) and the third generation (UMTS). GPRS technology (General Packet Radio Service) before, followed by the technology EDGE (Enhanced Data rates for Global Evolution), have allowed an increase in connection speed based on a new packet switched data transmission system.
Third-generation technologies are launched across the world in the early years 2000; new mobile 3 g follow the international standards IMT-2000 technical specifications defined by the ITU, International Telecommunication Union, as a goal the creation of global mobile communication system for global roaming of terminals. Among these, the UMTS standard (Universal Mobile Telecommunications System), current and still the most widely used in Europe, It is an evolution of the GSM. The introduction of the W-CDMA Protocol (Wideband Code Division Multiple Access), multiple access technology to radio channel for third-generation cellular networks, has enabled the UMTS standard to offer a further speeding up data transfer. The performance of UMTS, improved by the use of transmission protocols HSPA (High Speed Packet Access) favored the expansion and higher quality multimedia services available to mobile network, allowing for example fluid video calls and surf the Internet being able to access the desktop version of websites.
The 4 g symbol identifies the fourth, and current, generation of mobile services. The LTE technology (Long Term Evolution), and its latest development LTE Advanced (LTE-A), were developed in the late 2000 to increase performance of 4 g cellular networks, sending and receiving data at a speed of connection can compete with domestic connection speeds. Thanks to a growing network coverage and the rise of devices that support it, more and more smartphones and tablets can browse and access cloud, high definition video conferencing and streaming services without delays or interruptions, made possible by the fast connection and latency reduction achieved by 4 g networks.
5G: the new frontier of mobile technology
Telecommunications operators and industry experts are already engaged in the research and development of 5 g., the technological infrastructure can further enhance data throughput of existing networks to support the growing number of users and services accessible from mobile network.
The International Telecommunication Union is starting to outline the IMT-2020 guidelines on which you will base the new standard 5 g, Thanks to which we can navigate from smartphones and tablets to a theoretical maximum speed of 20 Gbps, up to 20 times faster than the maximum speed theorized for 4 g (1 Gbps).
The new generation of mobile technology, He predicted that ITU might begin to be available from 2020, In addition to offering higher speeds with very low latency, will be able to connect an high number of devices per square km and stay connected even traveling at very high speeds. The 5 g will provide new and better services for communication, improve performance in gaming and augmented reality, It will also develop the so-called "Internet of things" (IOT, Internet of Things): more and more devices, from wearable devices to a wide variety of common objects equipped with an electronic identity, can communicate on the network and be controlled remotely.