Electromagnetic compatibility is an important topic of engineering and society today and is set to become increasingly important with the progress of information technology and electronics.
This is a relatively recent concept and his birth is linked to large-scale dissemination of electronic equipment and their use in different types of environments.
Let us now try to understand what exactly is meant by the term "electromagnetic compatibility".
What is electromagnetic compatibility?
For electromagnetic compatibility means the discipline which ensures that your electronic devices operate correctly in a given environment and in the vicinity of other devices. Before the mass distribution of electronic equipment, radio receivers and transmitters were located to operate in environments where interference came only from natural sources like lightning, and almost nothing was being done to minimise their susceptibility to external disturbances or to limit emissions. When they began to manifest itself more and more artificial sources of interference, We focused on aspects of electromagnetic compatibility, to investigate and study the malfunctions that equipment often had.
This discipline he acquired special importance during World War II, When the Navy ships were equipped with very powerful and complex electronic equipment, such as communication systems, radar, missiles, all close together. It was also the first war in which the signals were blocked or distorted by electromagnetic interference. These aspects did that increase as there were more and more incidents of interference.
In almost all industrialized countries have created special mandatory rules to regulate the electromagnetic compatibility issues. For example,, EMC testing in the United States are so important that are regulated by federal law, In contrast to the security issues that are not. TheFCC (Federal Communication Commission) is the entity that manages the rules and regulations concerning electromagnetic emissions devices marketed on u.s. territory.
In Europe, and in particular with the birth of the European Union, the legislation was beginning a unified Community rules to regulate the trade of goods.
Aspects of electromagnetic compatibility in Europe are governed by 2014/30/EU EMC Directive.
The EMC Directive 2014/30/EU
The Electromagnetic compatibility directive "on the harmonisation of the laws of the Member States relating to electromagnetic compatibility" aims to ensure the free circulation of the equipment and create an environment acceptable electromagnetic, at the same time ensuring that the devices are working properly.
The compliance as defined by this directive is therefore a prerequisite that the electrical and electronic equipment must have in order to be freely marketed in the European market.
Let us now see in detail what points the directive.
In the article 1 defines the object, the goal, that is precisely to ensure that equipment placed on the market comply with an adequate level of electromagnetic compatibility.
But what are the equipment referred to?
The directive applies to any apparatus or fixed installation, as indicated in the articles 2 and 3:
- Each finished appliance, or combination of finished devices, made available on the market as a single functional unit, intended for the end user and liable to generate electromagnetic disturbance, or whose functioning can be affected by such disturbance;
- A particular combination of various types of equipment and, where applicable, other devices, which are assembled, installed and intended to be used permanently at a predefined location.
To comply with, the equipment shall comply with the essential requirements laid down in the directive in its annex I, in particular they must be designed and manufactured in such a way that:
- The electromagnetic disturbance produced do not exceed the level above which radio and telecommunications equipment or other equipment cannot function normally;
- Has a level of immunity to electromagnetic disturbances predictable according to the use to which the information and which allows the normal operation without unacceptable deterioration.
Every piece of equipment that integrates active electronic parts can cause noise or that there could be interference is therefore subject to the electromagnetic compatibility tests.
Even those products that traditionally did not include electrical components, but with technological advances are developing and becoming more and more complex, must be verified to cover aspects of electromagnetic compatibility. Just think about how many devices in our home life and work today are driven by motors, electronic systems or remote controls.
In any case, One careful examination electromagnetic compatibility aspects about products guarantees its quality over time and projects them on a future increasingly technologically advanced.